Gout is a type of arthritis where swelling and severe pain develops in joints, especially at the base of the big toe. The condition affects approximately 1 in 40 adults. It is most common among men between 30-60 years of age. Gout less commonly affects women.
It is one of a few types of arthritis where future damage to joints can be avoided by having treatment.
Gout is a type of arthritis where swelling and severe pain develops in joints, especially at the base of the big toe. The condition affects approximately 1 in 40 adults. It is most common among men between 30-60 years of age. Gout less commonly affects women. It is one of a few types of arthritis where future damage to joints can be avoided by having treatment.
What causes gout?
Our bodies have a breakdown product called urate (or uric acid). Most urate is produced by the body. It breaks down substances known as purines and it usually passes out in our urine. If urate does not pass out of the body, or if you produce too much, it can build up and form crystals.
Gout is caused when these crystals build up and form around the body's joints, causing inflammation and pain. Purines are found naturally in the body and in some foods, such as shellfish, red meat, and certain alcohols, such as beer. Drinking a lot of alcohol can also cause dehydration, which makes gout more likely to occur. Urate builds up either because too much urate is being produced by the body or because not enough is being passed out in urine (which may indicate kidney disease).
Some other diseases can also increase your likelihood of developing gout. These include heart disease, psoriasis and the treatment of some blood disorders such as leukaemia. Not everyone with high urate levels will develop gout.
We don't know why some people develop it but if you are overweight you are more likely to develop it. A balanced diet and weight loss will reduce your chances of developing the condition.
What are the symptoms of gout?
The onset of gout can be quick and painful without any warning.
- Severe pain in one or more joints
- The joint is hot and tender
- Red shiny skin on the affected joint
- You might also have a fever and feel very tired
- In some cases, white crystal deposits (tophi) are visible under the skin.
How is gout diagnosed?
Your GP will examine the affected joint or joints, and ask questions about your family history, your diet and alcohol consumption. The simplest way to diagnose gout is by taking a small sample of fluid from the joint in question and testing it to see if high levels of uric acid crystals are present.
An ultrasound scan is useful in detecting the amounts of uric acid crystals in the joints which are not visible during a physical examination. You might also be asked to have a blood test a couple of weeks after the attack has finished to ascertain if your uric acid levels are unusually high.
What triggers a gout attack?
The following are risk factors for gout:
- if you are very stressed or have been ill
- if you injure or bruise a joint. If you are prone to gout, and you have more pain in a joint than you would expect after a minor bump, it could be an attack coming on, so you need to get treatment straight away
- taking diuretics (water tablets) or low-dose aspirin. Some people take these for high blood pressure or to prevent heart disease
How does gout affect people?
Gout usually affects the big toes. It can affect other joints such as ankles, knees, hands, wrists or elbows, particularly people who get gout when they are older. A joint will start to ache, then swell up and become red, hot and extremely painful.
The joint will be stiff. The joint may look as if it has a boil on it, or the skin can become shiny and peeling. You might also get a temperature and feel tired.
An attack of gout can last from 1-10 days, then calm down, doing no permanent damage to the joint. It may be years before you have another attack.
However, if you frequently experience attacks - which is rare - you can develop more permanent arthritis in the joint, which can damage it - known as 'chronic gout'.
Chronic gout can also cause tiny white lumps to appear under your skin, especially on your ears, fingers or elbows. This is where urate crystals form under the skin, and they can be painful. If your urate levels are especially high, it can build up in the kidneys as stones, so you will need treatment to reduce the levels.
How is gout treated?
Gout is treated in different ways depending on the severity of the condition.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) -Very bad attacks of gout are usually treated with NSAIDs. These help reduce inflammation and so cut down the pain. You must always take NSAIDs with or straight after food to prevent stomach problems. NSAIDs can be taken at the first sign of an attack.
- Cortisone type drugs - Corticosteroids might be given to you as tablets or an injection if an acute attack does not respond to other drugs.
Self-help for gout
Whilst it is always advisable to consult your GP if you have suspected gout, there are measures you can take yourself to alleviate the
- An icepack or pack of frozen peas, wrapped in a cloth, can be put on the sore joint for 30 minutes, several times a day, to bring relief and reduce inflammation. A frame over your foot to keep bedclothes off it can relieve pain at night.
- If you are overweight, losing weight very gradually can help reduce the amount of urate in your blood. Do not go on a starvation diet. That can make gout worse.
- Moderate exercise is important to keep joints moving. A physiotherapist can give you exercises geared to your needs.
- Reduce the amount of alcohol you drink because dehydration can trigger gout. Alcohol, especially beer, can make it more likely for an attack of gout to occur. Drink lots of water - six to eight glasses a day - to help prevent kidney stones. This can stop urate forming into crystals. For the best advice on how much water you should drink, talk to your doctor.
- It is helpful to cut down on foods which contain purines. The foods that are high in purines are liver, oily fish (herring, mackerel, sardines, fish roe, anchovies), beer, yeast and yeast extracts (like Marmite).
Who offers treatment for gout?
If you think you have gout or any kind of arthritis, see your GP. An infected joint can look the same as gout, so the doctor will need to rule that out. They might do a blood test to measure the amount of urate in your blood. They might also take some of the fluid from around a joint and get it tested to see if it contains any crystals.
It is important to talk to your doctor not only about how to treat an acute attack of gout but also how to prevent another attack and manage the condition.
If your gout is severe and keeps flaring up, your doctor may suggest you see a rheumatologist - a specialist or consultant based at a hospital. They may be able to advise on taking stronger drugs like corticosteroids.